Plant Polymeric Carbohydrates
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Waxes and cutin make up the cuticle which is a water-retaining barrier around the above ground parts of plants. As their name implies carbohydrates are composed of the elements of water and carbon so their formula approximates to a multiple of CH2O. Most of the dry weight of plants is carbohydrate of one kind or another. All carbohydrates are polar and the low-molecular forms are what we commonly know as sugars. Sugars are freely soluble in water.
The simplest is the three carbon sugar, glyceraldehyde but most of the carbohydrates in plants are based on glucose or other six carbon sugars. Like other sugars glucose can exist in two basic forms, an open chain or a ring structure. When the ring closes the OH group on the last carbon can be up beta or down alpha.
This then influences how the sugars can be joined together in larger molecules. When sugars move around the plant they are usually in the form of sucrose in which glucose and fructose are joined by a glycosidic bond. This bond is made by removing the elements of water from two sugars.
It can be broken by re-introducing those elements - the process of hydrolysis "water splitting" can often be accomplished by heating in acidic solution. For example corn syrup is made by heating starch from corn in dilute acid. Organisms use enzymes to carry out this kind of reaction without heating and in neutral solution. Polysaccharides are made up by joining hundreds of monosaccharides by glycosidic bonds.
The most common food reserve in plants is starch which you probably know can be dissolved in boiling water:. Joining glucose in the beta configuration produces a very different polysaccharide, cellulose.
Chemistry for Biologists: Carbohydrates
This is completely insoluble in water and is the most important structural component of plant cell walls:. Another important cell wall component, particularly in herbaceous tissue is pectin. This is made up of a modified sugar, galacturonic acid and in the plant the carboxyl groups are esterified with methyl CH3 groups which are not shown in the picture:.
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Fungal cell walls are made of chitin a polymer of N-acetyl glucosamine. The kind of cell wall that an organism makes is a fundamental property that cannot easily be changed. So the fact that true fungi have chitin cell walls makes them more like animals than plants. Conversely the water molds have cellulose cell walls that make them more plant-like, so they have been separated from the fungi in modern classification.
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