Netting All the Way (Beading with Varvara)
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The history of jewellery is long and goes back many years, with many different uses among different cultures. It has endured for thousands of years and has provided various insights into how ancient cultures worked. The earliest known Jewellery was actually created not by humans Homo Sapiens but by Neanderthal living in Europe. Specifically, perforated beads made from small sea shells have been found dating to , years ago in the Cueva de los Aviones, a cave along the southeast coast of Spain. Later in Kenya, at Enkapune Ya Muto , beads made from perforated ostrich egg shells have been dated to more than 40, years ago.
In Russia, a stone bracelet and marble ring are attributed to a similar age.
Later, the European early modern humans had crude necklaces and bracelets of bone, teeth, berries, and stone hung on pieces of string or animal sinew , or pieces of carved bone used to secure clothing together. In some cases, jewellery had shell or mother-of-pearl pieces. The Venus of Hohle Fels features a perforation at the top, showing that it was intended to be worn as a pendant. Around seven-thousand years ago, the first sign of copper jewellery was seen. String of beads; BC; lapis lazuli the blue beads and travertine the white beads Egyptian alabaster ; length: 4.
String of beads; BC; carnelian , garnet , quartz and glazed steatite ; length: The first signs of established jewellery making in Ancient Egypt was around 3,—5, years ago. In Predynastic Egypt jewellery soon began to symbolise political and religious power in the community.
Although it was worn by wealthy Egyptians in life, it was also worn by them in death, with jewellery commonly placed among grave goods. In conjunction with gold jewellery, Egyptians used coloured glass , along with semi-precious gems. The colour of the jewellery had significance. Green, for example, symbolised fertility.
Lapis lazuli and silver had to be imported from beyond the country's borders. Egyptian designs were most common in Phoenician jewellery.
Also, ancient Turkish designs found in Persian jewellery suggest that trade between the Middle East and Europe was not uncommon. Women wore elaborate gold and silver pieces that were used in ceremonies. Pendant; circa BC; gold and turquoise; overall: 5. By approximately 5, years ago, jewellery-making had become a significant craft in the cities of Mesopotamia.
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The most significant archaeological evidence comes from the Royal Cemetery of Ur , where hundreds of burials dating — BC were unearthed; tombs such as that of Puabi contained a multitude of artefacts in gold, silver, and semi-precious stones, such as lapis lazuli crowns embellished with gold figurines, close-fitting collar necklaces, and jewel-headed pins. In Assyria , men and women both wore extensive amounts of jewellery, including amulets , ankle bracelets, heavy multi-strand necklaces, and cylinder seals. Jewellery in Mesopotamia tended to be manufactured from thin metal leaf and was set with large numbers of brightly coloured stones chiefly agate, lapis, carnelian, and jasper.
Favoured shapes included leaves, spirals, cones, and bunches of grapes. Jewellers created works both for human use and for adorning statues and idols. Extensive and meticulously maintained records pertaining to the trade and manufacture of jewellery have also been unearthed throughout Mesopotamian archaeological sites. One record in the Mari royal archives, for example, gives the composition of various items of jewellery:. Sumerian necklace beads; — BC; gold and lapis lazuli; length: 54 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art. Necklace; — BC; gold and lapis lazuli ; length: Sumerian necklaces and headgear discovered in the royal and individual graves of the Royal Cemetery at Ur, showing the way they may have been worn, in British Museum London.
The Greeks started using gold and gems in jewellery in BC, although beads shaped as shells and animals were produced widely in earlier times. Around BC, the main techniques of working gold in Greece included casting, twisting bars, and making wire. The forms and shapes of jewellery in ancient Greece such as the armring 13th century BC , brooch 10th century BC and pins 7th century BC , have varied widely since the Bronze Age as well.
Other forms of jewellery include wreaths, earrings, necklace and bracelets. Jewellery dating from to BC is not well represented in the archaeological record, but after the Persian wars the quantity of jewellery again became more plentiful.
By BC, the Greeks had mastered making coloured jewellery and using amethysts , pearl , and emeralds. Also, the first signs of cameos appeared, with the Greeks creating them from Indian Sardonyx , a striped brown pink and cream agate stone. Greek jewellery was often simpler than in other cultures, with simple designs and workmanship. However, as time progressed, the designs grew in complexity and different materials were soon used.
Jewellery in Greece was hardly worn and was mostly used for public appearances or on special occasions. It was frequently given as a gift and was predominantly worn by women to show their wealth, social status, and beauty. The jewellery was often supposed to give the wearer protection from the " Evil Eye " or endowed the owner with supernatural powers , while others had a religious symbolism.
Older pieces of jewellery that have been found were dedicated to the Gods. They worked two styles of pieces: cast pieces and pieces hammered out of sheet metal. Fewer pieces of cast jewellery have been recovered.
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It was made by casting the metal onto two stone or clay moulds. The two halves were then joined together, and wax , followed by molten metal, was placed in the centre. This technique had been practised since the late Bronze Age. The more common form of jewellery was the hammered sheet type. Sheets of metal would be hammered to thickness and then soldered together.
The inside of the two sheets would be filled with wax or another liquid to preserve the metal work. Different techniques, such as using a stamp or engraving, were then used to create motifs on the jewellery. Jewels may then be added to hollows or glass poured into special cavities on the surface.
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The Greeks took much of their designs from outer origins, such as Asia, when Alexander the Great conquered part of it. In earlier designs, other European influences can also be detected. When Roman rule came to Greece, no change in jewellery designs was detected. However, by 27 BC, Greek designs were heavily influenced by the Roman culture. That is not to say that indigenous design did not thrive. Numerous polychrome butterfly pendants on silver foxtail chains, dating from the 1st century, have been found near Olbia , with only one example ever found anywhere else. Mycenaean necklace; BC; gilded terracotta; diameter of the rosettes: 2.
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Necklace; circa BC; gold, moonstone , garnet , emerald , cornelian , baroque pearl and banded agate ; overall: Gorgons, pomegranates, acorns, lotus flowers and palms were a clear indicator of Greek influence in Etruscan jewelry. The modelling of heads, which was a typical practice from the Greek severe period, was a technique that spread throughout the Etruscan territory.
An even clearer evidence of new influences is the shape introduced in the Orientalizing era: The Bullae. A pear shaped vessel used to hold perfume. Much of the jewelry found was not worn by Etruscans, but were made to accompany them in the after world. Most, if not all, techniques of Etruscan goldsmiths were not invented by them as they are dated to the third millennium BC. The Vulci set of jewelry ; early 5th century; gold, glass, rock crystal, agate and carnelian ; various dimensions; Metropolitan Museum of Art New York City.
Earring in the form of a dolphin; 5th century BC; gold; 2. Bulla with Daedalus and Icarus ; 5th century BC; gold; 1.
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Although jewellery work was abundantly diverse in earlier times, especially among the barbarian tribes such as the Celts , when the Romans conquered most of Europe, jewellery was changed as smaller factions developed the Roman designs. The most common artefact of early Rome was the brooch , which was used to secure clothing together. The Romans used a diverse range of materials for their jewellery from their extensive resources across the continent. As early as 2, years ago, they imported Sri Lankan sapphires and Indian diamonds and used emeralds and amber in their jewellery.
In Roman-ruled England , fossilised wood called jet from Northern England was often carved into pieces of jewellery. The early Italians worked in crude gold and created clasps, necklaces, earrings, and bracelets. They also produced larger pendants that could be filled with perfume. Like the Greeks, often the purpose of Roman jewellery was to ward off the "Evil Eye" given by other people. Although women wore a vast array of jewellery, men often only wore a finger ring.