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Sugimoto has published books with Elsevier and Springer. He has 41 patents on photosensitive materials and citations. Subscribe now to be the first to hear about specials and upcoming releases. Title Author.
Monodispersed Particles. Hardback 1. Description of this Book Monodispersed Particles, Second Edition covers all aspects of monodispersed particles, including inorganic and polymer particles and their composites. Author's Bio Dr. This preview is indicative only. The content shown may differ from the edition of this book sold on Wheelers.
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Monodispersed Particles by Tadao Sugimoto - ISBN: (Elsevier Science & Technology)
A sample of objects that have an inconsistent size, shape and mass distribution is called non-uniform. The objects can be in any form of chemical dispersion , such as particles in a colloid , droplets in a cloud,  crystals in a rock,  or polymer macromolecules in a solution or a solid polymer mass.
IUPAC has also deprecated the terms monodisperse , which is considered to be self-contradictory, and polydisperse , which is considered redundant, preferring the terms uniform and non-uniform instead. A uniform, polymer often referred to as a monodisperse polymer is composed of molecules of the same mass. This technique is also known as living polymerization. It is used commercially for the production of block copolymers. Monodisperse collections can be easily created through the use of template-based synthesis, a common method of synthesis in nanotechnology.
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A polymer material is denoted by the term disperse, or non-uniform, if its chain lengths vary over a wide range of molecular masses. This is characteristic of man-made polymers. It is the case of humic acids and fulvic acids , natural polyelectrolyte substances having respectively higher and lower molecular weights.
Another interpretation of dispersity is explained in the article Dynamic light scattering cumulant method subheading. In this sense, the dispersity values are in the range from 0 to 1. The dispersity indicates the distribution of individual molecular masses in a batch of polymers. Typical dispersities vary based on the mechanism of polymerization and can be affected by a variety of reaction conditions. In synthetic polymers, it can vary greatly due to reactant ratio, how close the polymerization went to completion, etc.
Living polymerization , a special case of addition polymerization, leads to values very close to 1.
Such is the case also in biological polymers, where the dispersity can be very close or equal to 1, indicating only one length of polymer is present. The reactor polymerization reactions take place in can also affect the dispersity of the resulting polymer. With respect to batch and plug flow reactors PFRs , the dispersities for the different polymerization methods are the same.
Monodisperse polymer particles — a step forward for chromatography
This is largely because while batch reactors depend entirely on time of reaction, plug flow reactors depend on distance traveled in the reactor and its length. Since time and distance are related by velocity, plug flow reactors can be designed to mirror batch reactors by controlling the velocity and length of the reactor. Continuously stirred-tank reactors CSTRs however have a residence time distribution and cannot mirror batch or plug flow reactors, which can cause a difference in the dispersity of final polymer.
The effects of reactor type on dispersity depend largely on the relative timescales associated with the reactor, and with the polymerization type. In conventional bulk free radical polymerization, the dispersity is often controlled by the proportion of chains that terminate via combination or disproportionation.
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When these radicals react in any reactor, their lifetimes, and as a result, the time needed for reaction are much shorter than any reactor residence time. For FRPs that have a constant monomer and initiator concentration, such that the DP n is constant, the dispersity of the resulting monomer is between 1. As a result, reactor type does not affect dispersity for free radical polymerization reactions in any noticeable amount as long as conversion is low.
For anionic polymerization, a form of living polymerization , the reactive anion intermediates have the ability to remain reactive for a very long time.
In batch reactors or PFRs, well-controlled anionic polymerization can result in almost uniform polymer.