Becoming Virtual: Knowledge Management and Transformation of the Distributed Organization

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Cite this article as:. Article Figures and tables References. Abstract Abstract This study aims to highlight and summarize the possible antecedents and factors that facilitate or impede knowledge management and knowledge sharing in organizations.

The five trademarks of agile organizations

Public Interest Statement Managing knowledge in an organization is as significant as other assets are managed. Methodology This study employs meta-review to serve the purpose because meta-analytical approach is based on nomothetic knowledge, as it provides generalized observations, or principles on the basis of a large number of studies, previously conducted with different methods and metrics in some common effect size measures. Table 1. Summary of meta-review for knowledge management and knowledge sharing Authors Year Issues Trends Country McNichols Barriers in knowledge transfer processes from Baby boomers generation to Generation X The strategies, processes, and methods to transfer knowledge can be helpful for organizational leaders to bridge the generation gap; Leaders should develop sensitivity to diversity, enhancing open communication and understanding the strengths and benefits of multigenerational workforce.

USA Holste and Fields Impact of affective- and cognitive-based trust of co-workers on professionals willingness to share and use tacit knowledge Leaders should make investments to develop types of trusts in the organization. Knowledge management efforts should include a finer view of social networking of employees that affect knowledge transfer and management processes. Management should provide appropriate incentives to employees to engage them in KM initiatives. An appropriate management system should be organized Proper coordination must prevail among employees who are familiar with the objectives and methods of KM.

Culture of mutual trust and assistance Finland Gururajan and Fink Heavy workload, diverse work agendas, and elder age impede the transfer of knowledge. Not compensated well for mentoring activities. Need of ability to receive knowledge. Lack of discussion boards, rapid technological change, and lack of resources teaching loads and expectations can be reduced to improve the transfer of knowledge.

Compensation of senior staff and mentoring of junior staff can significantly improve transfer of knowledge. Academics have to understand how ICT contributes to the transfer of knowledge.


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  4. Electronic discussion forum can increase knowledge levels. Social Interaction encourages knowledge regeneration. Not known Niu Relationship between a firm industrial cluster involvement, trust, and knowledge obtaining Firms need to concentrate on the degree of industrial cluster involvement desired and focus their knowledge-obtaining activities and trusting relationships among clustering firms appropriately. It is important to consider that the nature of the cluster involvement, the particular type of trust, and source of obtaining knowledge.

    USA, China, Taiwan, Sweden Li Cross-cultural knowledge sharing online Online sharing of knowledge in different organizations with different cultural mix.

    Digital Transformation Is Not About Technology

    Identification of moderating variables and their effects. Refinement of roles of attitude in knowledge transfer. Australia Zhou, Siu, and Wang Social tie content and knowledge transfer Use of social network by senior members to transfer knowledge and its difference from junior employees. Estimate pooling technique. China Lilleoere and Holme Hansen Knowledge sharing Barriers and Enablers Manager should be aware of the diversity of the professionals regarding knowledge sharing and barriers. Managers should emphasize on the value of synergism of knowledge-sharing enablers.

    Managers should understand the role of voluntary and solicited KS. KM practitioners should cultivate such culture that develops trust among employees and recognizes them for taking knowledge initiatives. KE can be enhanced by promoting a culture of teamwork, involvement, rewards system, and information flow. In future, organizational performance can be measured by considering KE and cultural attributes.

    Individual, social, and organizational factors affecting attitude and intentions to share knowledge.

    Related concepts

    Difference between formal and informal CoPs with reference to effects of such factors Intrinsic motivation is more critical for knowledge sharing in spontaneous setting. Knowledge contribution of employees should be recognized through rewards. Korea Xue, Bradley, and Liang Impact of team climate and empowering leadership on employees knowledge-sharing behavior Cultivating a nurturing team environment.

    Empowering leadership skills to be emphasized. Appropriate training programs. Dubai Middle east van den Hooff, Schouten and Simonovski Influence of emotions on the attitude toward knowledge sharing and knowledge-sharing intentions Influence of positive and negative emotions on knowledge sharing can be studied. Study knowledge sharing in more realistic setting Laboratory Experiment. Which reward system should be used to motivate employees to share knowledge?

    Create organizational memory.

    Create a platform for the inter-organizational exchange of knowledge. Spain Mueller Cross-boundary knowledge sharing, cultural values, and manifestation influence knowledge sharing between project teams Austria Casimir, Ngee Keith Ng, and Liou Paul Cheng Role of IT usage of knowledge sharing in intention behavior relationship Malaysia Kim, Newby-Bennett, and Song Externally imposed institutional pressure and knowledge sharing Accreditation Agency. Midwest United States Vuori and Okkonen What motivates and demotivates people from sharing knowledge through an intra-organizational social media platform?

    New Findings and Practical Cases

    Affordance of social media platform. Finland Casimir, Lee, and Loon Perceived cost of knowledge sharing, affective commitment, and trust Role of certain organizational barriers in KS. Organizational culture, virtual teams, and trust in absence of face-to-face interaction. Australia McAdam, Moffett, and Peng Critical cultural studies focusing on particular aspects of knowledge sharing in Chinese organizations KM models, tools, and techniques in the Chinese context.

    China Fong Boh, Nguyen, and Xu Perception of individuals about the headquarters and influence on the transfer of knowledge Vietnam Norway Fullwood, Rowley, and Delbridge Attitude and intentions toward knowledge sharing and related factors Development of intelligence and other useful-related approaches to capitalize the extant culture in universities UK Nakano, Muniz, and Dias Batista Unstructured work environment and tacit knowledge sharing Less automated production line. Quantitative study.

    Data Topics

    Brazil Huang, Chiu, and Lu Insufficient motivation for repatriates to share knowledge Effects of task-level, firm-level, and external environment characteristics. Use database of repatriates for future study. Future study can be generalized by focusing on health care. Sample size could be increased. Italy Kang and Kim Embedded resources of social capital and knowledge transfer External ties of network survey. Longitudinal study of multiple waves of survey.

    South Korea Fang, Yang, and Hsu Relationship between knowledge characteristic, knowledge barriers, knowledge governance mechanism, and inter-organizational knowledge transfer. Strategies for effective inter-organizational knowledge transfer. Not known Peng Territoriality and hiding knowledge. Tacit and explicit knowledge hiding. Using experimental design and other scales. Shanghai Pangil and Moi Chan Effectiveness of virtual teams Effect of the factors that affect team effectiveness in general can affect the virtual team effectiveness.

    How to implement knowledge management in an organisation

    Malaysia Filieri and Alguezaui Role of structural social capital in knowledge transfer and innovation at interpersonal, inter-unit, and inter-firm levels. Influence of change readiness on other processes of knowledge management. Durmusoglu, Jacobs, Zamantili Nayir, Khilji, and Wang Limited study of reward system in the knowledge-sharing context Influence of culture and rewards on the mechanism of knowledge sharing. Multiple industries in different countries Jasimuddin, Connell, and Klein Determinants of knowledge transfer mechanism selection Comparisons of the constructs of interest in different organizations.

    UK Ma, Huang, Wu, Dong, and Qi Collectivist culture and challenges to the universality of knowledge management sharing theories China Rathi, Given, and Forcier Inter-organizational partnership and knowledge sharing Additional partnership types. Structural characteristics of partnership types. Overlapping of inter- and intra-organizational sharing practices.